The Quran

http://islamgreatreligion.files.wordpress.com/2009/04/quran11.jpg 


I am a book in elegant prints
To know my name, here are some hints

Rich in cover and nicely bound
In hearts of Muslims I am rarely found

High on a shelf, I am kept
Forgotten there, I am left

 

With respect I do get lots of kiss
my main point is what they always miss

In a melodious voice they recite me
Neglecting the me...ssage inside me

At times I am used for phoney swear
My true use is very very rare

A miracle I am that can change the world
All one has to do is understand my word

I have wisdom I have treasure
so much so there is no measure

I'm your saviour, I'm your guide
But who's there to follow the bide

Right from wrong is my fame
Holy Quran is my name

 

 Shared From a dear Friend, Danial Sheikh's blog (:

The ground breaking and cutting edge researh into the Global Warming Conspiracy

http://api.ning.com/files/*Rf1tbmDCRz5o-a1bpQSvg5biHst*dBywoSOKQx3TXSjB6aKYadXE-Mf7ZZOrCBHbCIwl3kbO8QzIbxtKZKoFd5bl7lFgAlQ/global_warming_panic288x300.jpg 

As we all know what is Global warming,
it is an increase in the average temperature of the earth's atmosphere (especially a sustained increase that causes climatic changes) 
So, scientists say that, this is caused by activities of the human, they release carbon dioxide because of their so-called "Un-Environmental" activities, but my question is since when did humans get such power to control and destroy the Perfect World made by THE ALMIGHTY ALLAH, believing in this theory means that we are contradicting the idea that HIS construction  is perfect and without flaws, as ALLAH S.W.T says in the QURAN(Surah 59: Al-Hashr Ayat 23
The entire universe belongs to Him.  Only His law is in force in it; and no one else’s.  His powers and knowledge are unlimited.  His Being is most perfect and beyond any defect; and He provides nourishment for the development and completion of one's personality.  He protects everything in the universe from the effects of destructive forces and nothing is outside the umbrella of His guardianship. He has complete control and authority; and He therefore has the power to take His programme to its destined goal.  He has kept everything bound strictly within His Laws so that these may not disperse here and there and disturb the universal system.  There is no one equal to Him; and all greatness belongs to Him.  He is far above the possibility that the power and authority of any one else can be ascribed a share with Him.
 The two bold sentences of the QURAN describes that, ALLAH is the supreme force protecting this universe and each and everything in this universe, which includes our earth, is protected by ALLAH ALMIGHTY, secondly, QURAN says that HIS laws are soo perfect and soo strict that it couldn't get disperse and disturb the universal system....

According to what QURAN says, as I interpreted, Global Warming is a total conspiracy, a total hoax, introduced in this world just for the worldly gains of a small amount of community, who wanna control this world and thinks that they are above ALLAH ALMIGHTY(NAUZUBILLAH)


YA ALLAH CORRECT ME IF I AM WRONG, AND GUIDE ME TO THE STRAIGHT PATH.

Just a little thought by FAIZAN CHAKI

Islam and Science by Mahathir Bin Mohammad



1. A commentator asked "if the Islamic Empire (there never was an Islamic empire in the sense of the other Empires - only an Islamic community - the Ummah) was so good in science before why are the Orgainisation of Islamic Conference countries lagging behind in science and technology?".

2. I had explained why before but i think I should repeat.

3. The early Muslims accepted the message of Allah in the Qur'an enjoining upon Muslims to read (Iqraq). The verse (the first to be received by the Prophet - an illiterate man) did not specify, much less limit what Muslims should read.

4. There were no books on Islam at that time but there were many books on the Hebrew and the Christian religions. There were also many books or tracts on Greek science and philosophy as well as Indian mathematics.

5. The early Muslims read and eventually translated all the writings of the Greeks, the Indians and others. Obviously they had to learn these languages first. Then they followed up by doing their own research.

6. And so the early Muslims were learned in the subjects pioneered by these other races and this added to the body of knowledge they had acquired.

7. The Europeans on the other hand were wallowing in the superstitions of the Dark Ages despite having embraced Christianity. The superior civilisation of the Muslims overwhelmed the Europeans so that Spain, Portugal, Sicily, Greece and much of Eastern Europe fell under Muslim rule.

8. But around the 15th Century of the Christian era, fatwas were made by Muslim Ulamas that "Iqraq" or read was intended for reading and studying religion only. From then on the Muslim scientists, physicians, mathematicians etc stopped their study of these subjects in order to study religion exclusively.

9. On the other hand the Europeans noticing the greatness of the Muslim civilisation decided to acquire the knowledge of the Muslims in the different subjects, including those of the Greeks. To do this Christian priests learnt Arabic and were thus able to gain access to the great libraries of Cordoba, Baghdad and elsewhere. They translated the work of the Muslim scholars and scientists into Latin and then into the other European languages.

10. If we care to read the history of the Muslims and the Europeans we would notice that from around the 15th Century of the Christian era when the Muslims rejected what they regarded as non-religious knowledge, the Muslim civilisation began to regress.

11. The Europeans, after acquiring the knowledge of the Muslims started to emerge from the Dark Ages and to build the civilisation that we see today.

12. Unfortunately Muslim historians seem not to have noticed the significance of the fatwas of the 15th Century A.D. Even today Muslims seem unwilling to connect this decline of their civilisation with the neglect of non-religious knowledge. But European historians admit that their emergence from the Dark Ages, their Renaissance, coincided with their study of the Islamic civilisation and its origins.

The below commentary is by a person who commented on this post, and i really liked it, it was like this,



Tun,
I find the comments to your latest commentary extremely interesting and it may help explain the reason and fear of some muslims towards science. I noticed that the part that needled most of your conservative muslim commentators is your point that the great prophet was illiterate. It is taken as a possible insult when it is meant as an encouragement for his followers to emulate his thirst of knowledge and curiousity. The prophet and his early followers (much like the europeans of the renaissnace era) were very observant and curious people. They challenged themselves to explain the wonders of the almighty. They questioned why and how instead of just leaving it to Allah's will. This is a characteristic and behavior that the Muslims have failed to adhere to because it is too difficult and it does not fit their view of power and political structure. They prefer to memorize the "letter of the Quran" rather than its spirit. They would rather just follow the prophet's appearence and style (dressing and way of eating) rather than his characteristics (honest and thoughtful)and substance. They want to copy his actions but do not want to debate and understand his reasons because it is too difficult and as such best reserved to the chosen few who may have other agendas in place.

Prophet Muhamad was a leader during his time not because he was happy with the status quo or because he happens to be a son of a Sultan or royalty. He was an illiterate orphan, shephard and merchant. However he was curious and discontented with life and the system during the time. He reflected and meditated and with the almighty's grace and blessing, found islam and a fairer way of life than one that he was born into. After his passing, his early followers debated and build on "his curiousity". They thought and debated not only the letter but the spirit of the quran and his actions. They pursued knowledge in the spirit and gusto of the prophet and the more they understood, the more they respected the almighty. Sadly this spirit is now missing in the islamic world.

Blogging Strategies 101

Imagine this scenario. You’ve just came across an amazing website which offers a lucrative affiliate program. You signed up instantly as an affiliate and are itching to promote your referral link to as many people you know.
You hook up a new thread in a forum and insert your referral link after a short pitch, perhaps you’ll also leave a few comments on a few blogs with the referral link as the URL or signature.
http://www.jmorganmarketing.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/03/6a00d8345233a569e200e54f6f82da8833-800wi.jpgYou might even publish a short blog post which consists of nothing but a short opener, an excerpt from the website in question and your big fat affiliate referral link.
You sit back and eagerly check your referral stats. How many people signed up? How much am I earning? You set plans for tommorrow: maybe send some emails to people you know and create a banner or button for your blog. You probably think you’ve done a good job and are guaranteed a cashcow that will give you recurring earnings. Right?
Wrong. Promoting your affiliate link goes beyond the above steps, which are really promotional spurts directed at short-term gains. If the affiliate program offers recurring commission earnings, creating a focused, long term promotional strategy is of vital importance.

Six Key Strategies to Boost your Affiliate Referrals
Here are a collection of six points which anyone can use to increase their number of referrals for any affiliate program or website. These points apply across various industries and emphasize on long-term over short-term referral gains.
Note that they mainly apply to blogs, though they could easily be applied to other general websites.

1. Early Search Result Listings are Essential – Get Ranked Fast.
Being one of the first few people to write about a specific website or affiliate scheme will allow you to easily get ranked within the top 10 for most search engines. This is because there is very little competition for the specific term or keyphrase.
Another benefit of getting listed early is that people will usually do a search for a specific website because they need more details about it. You should aim to fill that information need because they’ll very likely sign up through your link if there are no other or very little sources available.
I’ve gotten over 1,000 Agloco referrals just because I’ve written a review of Agloco when it was just released a few months back.
I’ve not even bothered to update the review with fresh information and I’ve done absolutely nothing to increase my referrals. No forum spamming, no blog post pitches, no PPC campaigns, no email marketing, no article submissions. Nada. Nothing.
This was largely because I was ranked number one on Google for ‘Agloco Review‘ for some time. In fact, my post is still listed in the Top 5 results at the moment. This has allowed me to receive consistent search traffic everyday for several months.
Dosh Dosh also has strong result rankings for dozens of unique keywords, which ensures that I continue to make money through affiliate recommendations, even though my blog is completely free of contextual or banner ads.

2. Project Authenticity, Personality and Objectivity through Your Blog
Visitors who arrive your blog looking for specific information do not need another sales pitch. They’ve very likely been pre-sold, meaning that they’ve been persuaded to some extent by the website or business in question.
What they want is personal recommendations. Strive for objectivity and honesty when you are writing your review about the specific product. This means giving both good and bad points about a specific product.
Your review will be even better if you can include your personal experiences with the product in question. My Gangster Greed review is a good example of how I try to inculcate all these points.

3. Strive for Content Depth, Breadth and Uniqueness
Always try to surpass the other blogger that writes about the same topic by coming up with a review of far greater depth and detail. Explore questions which have not been addressed and link to sources which the other bloggers have missed.
Being unique and meticulous makes you a reference point and authority on the topic. This builds incoming links which will eventually help you rank well in the long run.
An example of this is my post on Adsense Wordpress Themes. The amount of material covered and the uniqueness of it (no one has ever done it before) has led a very large number of natural incoming links over time and has allowed me to consistently rank in the top five for several keywords.
Put yourself in the potential linker’s shoe. Would you rather send your reader to a short blog post with only 100 words on a product/website or you prefer to send them to a well-written 1000 word article which thoroughly examines the subject in question?

4. Optimize your Blog Post for Search Traffic
Writing with search engines in mind can make the whole article feel stunted and so I’ve never emphasized on stuffing keywords or phrases in specific sections of content. Don’t do it. It’s a waste of time and may degrade the overall quality of your post.
Demonstrating a personality that others can relate too is far more important when you are planning to increase affiliate referrals.
The only place where its absolutely essential to include your keyword or phrase is within the title of your blog post. Adjusting your post-slug and permalink to include the keyword structure is also helpful and can help to reduce the length of the URL as a whole.
However, pleasing the reader or potential referral is of utmost importance. Always try to target niche phrases that fit nicely within your article and if you really want to, buy or get others to include keyword links to your article.

5. Use Trackbacks Effectively to Generate Exposure
Don’t just come across a specific item and write about it as if you were the one discovering it. By referencing the original news breaker, a relevant link to your post will be listed beneath their original article in the form of a trackback.
This is a great way to get very targeted traffic because readers might need more information on the specific website/program. If your article is good enough, the blogger in question might even update the original post and include a link to it.
The trick to trackbacking is to reference as many relevant and high traffic blogs as possible. To keep on top of popular news from other high profile blogs, I suggest using content aggregators or meme trackers which allow you easily reference several blogs at once.

6. Leech Traffic from Relevant Blogs
This is a method that I have used for a while. Say you’ve just written a great article on a specific website or program and included your affiliate links. The next step is to promote your article through relevant niche blogs.
How do you do this? Use Google Alerts to set up notifications when bloggers write a post about the specific topic in question. This sends an automated email to your inbox every day or once a week.
You can then visit specific blogs and leave a relevant comment while discreetly mentioning your review. This is a great way to acquire potential referrals who are commitment-phobic and need more information.
Depending on the traffic level for each blog, you’ll tend to get a few visitors who will be interested enough to visit your website. Just remember to deeplink to the specific post and not your blog homepage.
This method also has the benefit of allowing you to easily stay in touch with the latest news concerning the specific program, which allows you to update your blog or website accordingly.
Another way to do this is to hang out at social websites like Digg or Reddit and visit blogs that are very likely to hit the homepage. Leaving an interesting comment will induce visitors to your blog. This is far less targeted than using Google Alerts but can lead to greater traffic flow.

Key Point Summary – A Checklist to Follow
  • Write a blog post after you sign up for an affiliate program. Pick keywords or keyphrases that are likely to receive more search volume.
  • Check if you are making a personal recommendation and come across as authentic/objective.
  • Is your review detailed and unique enough? Does it cover new ground or offer new perspectives?
  • Optimize your Blog post. Are the keywords in the title?
  • Remember to use references and send trackbacks.
  • Keep track of articles from other bloggers on the same topic. Have you set up a Google Alert or found a way to keep up with news on a specific topic? 
Courtesy: Dosh Dosh

Dedicated to the Youth of Pakistan

http://jaagoraypakistan.files.wordpress.com/2009/09/pakisan-youth0071.jpgApne markaz sey agar door nikal jao gay..
khaak ho jao gay afsanon main dehel jao gay..



Dey rahain hain jo tumhe aaj rafaqat k faraib..
inki tareek parho gay to behl jao gay..



Apni mitti pe to chalnay ka saleeqa seekho..
Sang-e-mar mar pe chalo gay to phisal jao gay..



Khuwab gahon sey nikaltay huay dartay q ho?
dhoop itni tou nahi k pighal jao gay...



taiz qadmon say chalo aur tasadum sey bacho..
bheer main sust chalo gay to kuchal jao gay...


As the GREAT Iqbal describes in his own words for the Youth of Pakistan   

Nahin tera nashenmand kasre sultani key ghumbadh par

tu shaheen hai, basera kar paharon ki chattanoun par

Learn More, Study Less – Flow-Based Notetaking

http://www.healthsystem.virginia.edu/internet/med-curriculum/images/holistic.jpgI’m not a fan of taking detailed and intricate notes. I’m a believer in the “learn it once” principle, which means you should be listening and processing the information as your professor or instructor is saying it–not just transcribing it on a piece of paper to learn later.

One technique I use during classes where there is a lot of information is flow-based notetaking. The goal with flow-based notetaking is that it should provide a surface for connecting and linking ideas as they are reaching you. The linear, bullet-point style of notes that most people use is out for a more fluid (although messier) format.

With flow-based note-taking you start by only writing out the major ideas. This means using a few words at most instead of entire sentences. This can reduce readability later, but it enhances learning during the lecture. Facts, dates, details and descriptions are reduced to just a few words, not lengthy paragraphs.
Once you get an idea written down, your next step is drawing a few arrows to connect it to other ideas. Instead of an ordered hierarchy of ideas, you want to represent the ideas as being interrelated components. This process more closely mirrors the actual holistic learning strategy, where ideas are linked into a web.
I tend to use flow-based notetaking as a method for using other techniques as well. Metaphor, diagraming and information compression are methods that can be used in conjunction with flow-based notetaking to enhance your understanding. This way you can write out major ideas and connect them to small pictures, diagrams or references to other subjects.

Remember that notes are only an intermediate step towards understanding. Having a beautiful set of perfectly written notes is useless if you don’t understand the subject you are trying to learn. Flow-based notetaking, is a messier approach to taking notes, but one I believe is more effective at helping to understand the material.

Hybrid Flow-Based Notetaking
Flow-based notetaking involves a trade-off between recording and exploration. With regular, linear notetaking, you can create an almost perfect record of what was said in a class. This method is useful if you need to review that information multiple times in order to learn it properly.
With flow-based notetaking you are sacrificing some later readability, for current understanding. By reducing the content of your notes and adding links or diagrams, the material can be learned more holistically. However, if the class has a high information density or you plan to review notes thoroughly later, there are hybrid strategies you can pursue.

Flow-Based Afternotes
The first hybrid strategy for flow-based notetaking is to take regular notes first and then recopy them into a flow-based format. If you are having trouble keeping up with the pace in a class, this strategy can give you more time to properly digest the information. Although it takes longer than a purely flow-based or linear notetaking style, it gives both readability and understanding.
I suggest starting with flow-based afternotes for the first month of trying this new notetaking style. This will ensure that you have a copy of your clearly organized notes in case you need to study them later.

Flow-Based Commenting
Some classes have an extremely high information density. When the amount of facts can’t be compressed and you are writing frantically just to get everything on paper, flow-based notetaking is almost impossible. Flow-based notetaking assumes that you can record all the critical information in a class in less time than it takes to teach. Most good teachers will give plenty explanation room and examples. During that time you can create the connections, metaphors and diagrams you need to learn holistically.
However, in cases when information density goes faster than you can record, flow-based commenting is an alternative strategy. Basically it involves writing down the key information and inserting links into your notes when there is a break. If a professor puts up a few dozen formulas you need to record, you could write all these down first. Following that, you could add more connections when the professor starts giving examples of how the formulas are used.

Recognizing Critical Information
The key ability with flow-based notetaking is to know what is important. What is the core information taught here? If you write down everything said in a lecture with equal emphasis, then you’ll spend your entire class transcribing instead of thinking. Instinctively writing down every word written on an overhead transparency or Powerpoint slide is useless if you don’t actually think about what you are writing.
With flow-based notetaking I cut down the amount of information I transcribe and emphasize on connecting and sorting that information in a way I understand.
Here is a quick scan of some of my notes taken from a class:
FlowBasedNotetakingResized.png

 Courtesy: Scott H. Young - Learn More, Study Less
                                                                                                        

Best Way - Food for the Brain Before Exams

Exams can be extremely stressful. Some teachers place a great emphasis on them, making them a large part of your grade. That alone is enough cause a student unnecessary stress. Certain foods and relaxation techniques can boost your brain power and help you do your best on exam day.

    Neurotransmitters

  1. Neurotransmitters are chemicals in the brain that send messages from neuron to neuron. These chemicals are crucial for proper brain function. Amino acids, found in protein foods, create neurotransmitters. There are three main neurotransmitters, which are acetylcholine, dopamine and serotonin. Foods rich in acetylcholine include peanuts, egg yolks, liver, meat, fish, wheat germ, cheese, milk and vegetables. Dopamine rich foods include meat, fish, dairy products, nuts, beans and soy products. Foods that contain large amounts of serotonin are carbohydrate based, such as starchy vegetables, pasta, cereals, potatoes and breads.
  2. Types

  3. Eating carbohydrates increases the levels of serotonin in your brain. When your serotonin levels are high, you feel calmer and more relaxed, which is important if you're taking an exam. Carbohydrates are also beneficial because they turn to glucose when digested. Glucose, or sugar, is the brain's main source of energy. Vegetables, fruits and grains are all high in carbohydrates and will help your brain's performance during an exam. Proteins are also important, because they help to improve mental performance. They are essential to the function, structure and regulation of the body's organs and tissues---including the brain. Protein rich foods include fish, meat, milk and cheese. Fats regulate blood circulation, mood, memory and the immune system. Omega 3 fatty acids are an excellent way to boost your brain power. If your Omega 3 fatty acid level is low, you can suffer from learning disabilities, low IQ, dyslexia, poor memory or ADD---all of which are detrimental to someone who is taking an exam.
  4. Vitamins and Minerals

  5. Vitamins and minerals are essential for your overall health, including the functioning and growth of your brain. Vitamin B is one of the most important vitamins for your brain. Foods that are high in Vitamin B include whole-grain products, red meat, green leafy vegetables, sweet corn, brown rice, yeast, berries, peas, butter, soybeans and poultry. Magnesium, manganese, sodium, potassium and calcium are all important minerals for your brain.
  6. Preparing for Your Exam

  7. It takes more than food to ace an exam. You must be fully prepared for the test, both mentally and physically. Organize your study materials so they are easy for you to find when you need them. Create a study plan, and make sure to budget your time wisely. Break up your studying into small sessions so you don't feel overwhelmed. Make notes and flashcards to help you memorize the material. If you have a classmate who wants to study with you, you can both use the flashcards to quiz each other. Avoid staying up late, trying to fit in an extra cram session. You need to be relaxed on the day of the exam, not exhausted. One of the most important things to remember is to have a positive attitude. If you go into the exam expecting to do poorly, you won't try as hard as you normally would if you were optimistic. 
Courtesy: eHOW

The right way to say SALAM

http://www.2muslims.com/images/postcards/postcards/salam/salam_gallerysalam_gallery002_18.jpgSome Mistakes which we usually do without knowing about their nuisance..

People while writing or speaking, sometimes pronounce or write
ASSALAM-O-ALLIKUM (salam) in a wrong manner and offer a SIN ...

Kindly jot these mistakes and try to correct them..

Saam-o-Allikum..
(Allah may destroy you)

Asaam-o-allikum..
(Allah may give you death)

Assa-e-Kum..
(Allah will make you thirsty for happiness)

Saala-le-Kum..
(You will have curse)

These all are very basic mistakes even as a MUSLIM some times we do these silly mistakes..

So be careful while saying;ASSALAM-O-ALLIKUM
(You will have blessing)


Please forward it and spread awareness:
Try to collect each & every blessing no matters it's small or big..
If you haven't invited you'r friends yet than kindly invite them and earn some blessings .. As we are serving ISLAM by spreading it try to Serve it too..
Follow the link below;
http://www.facebook.com/groups/edit.php?members&gid=338134490548

If you have any queries message us..
Jazakallh & Assalam o Allikum..
May ALLAH bless all MUSLIM ummah
(AMEEN)..

Economics: Exchange Rates by mjmfoodie


Ibn Khaldun - REAL FATHER OF SOCIAL SCIENCES







IBN KHALDUN
His Life and Work
1332 - 1406 / 732 - 808



He is indeed the one outstanding personality in the history of a civilization whose social life on the whole was 'solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short'. In his chosen field of intellectual activity he appears to have been inspired by no predecessors, and to have found no kindred souls among his contemporaries, and to have kindled no answering spark of inspiration in any successors ; and yet, in the Prolegomena (Muqaddimat) to his Universal History he has conceived and formulated a philosophy of history which is undoubtedly the greatest work of its kind that has ever yet been created by any mind in any time or place. It was his single brief 'acquiescence' from a life of practical activity that gave Ibn Khaldun his opportunity to cast his creative thought into literary shape.
A STUDY OR HISTORY. Vol. III. Arnold ]. Toynbee. Royal Institute of International Affairs and Oxford University Press. p. 321-322.

INTRODUCTION:
Ibn Khaldun is the most important figure in the field of History and Sociology in Muslim History. He is one of those shining stars that contributed so richly to the understanding of Civilization. In order for one to understand and appreciate his work, one must understand his life. He lived a life in search of stability and influence. He came from a family of scholars and politicians and he intended to live up to both expectations. He would succeed in the field of Scholarship much more so than in any other field.

CHILDHOOD AND EARLY YEARS:
He is Abdurahman bin Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Al-Hasan bin Jabir bin Muhammad bin Ibrahim bin Abdurahman bin Ibn Khaldun. His ancestry according to him originated from Hadramut, Yemen. He also traced his ancestry through another genealogy as supplied by Ibn Hazem using his grandfather who was the first to enter Andalusia back to Wail ibn Hajar one of the oldest Yemenite tribe. In either case, the genealogy points to his Arab origin although scholars do question the authenticity of both reports due to the political climate at the time of these reports.[1]
Ibn Khaldun was born in Tunis on Ramadan 1, 732 (May 27, 1332)[2]. He received a traditional education that was typical of his family’s rank and status. He learned first at the hands of his father who was a scholarly person who was not involved in politics like his ancestors. He memorized the Qur’an by heart, learned grammar, Jurisprudence, Hadith, rhetoric, philology, and poetry. He had reached certain proficiency in these subjects and received certification in them. In his autobiography, he does mention the names these scholars.[3]
He continued studies until the age of 19 when the great plague would sweep over the lands from Samarkand to Mauritania. It was after this plague that Ibn Khaldun would receive his first public assignment.[4] This would start his political career that would forever change his life.


IN TUNISIA AND MOROCCO
Ibn Tafrakin, the ruler of Tunis, called Ibn Khaldun to be the seal bearer of his captive Sultan Abu lshaq. It is here that Ibn Khaldun would get first hand look at the inner workings of court politics and the weakness of the government. It would not be long before he would get an opportunity to leave Tunis.[5]
In 1352 (713 A. H.) Abu Ziad, the Emir of Constantine, marched his forces on Tunis. Ibn Khaldun accompanied Ibn Tafrakin with the forces that would ward off Abu Ziad’s attacks. Tunis was defeated and Ibn Khaldun escaped to Aba, where he lived with al-Mowahideen. He would move back and forth through Algeria and settled in Biskra.[6]
At that same time in Morocco Sultan Abu Enan, who had recently settled on the throne of his father, was on his way to conquer Algeria. Ibn Khaldun would travel to Tlemcen to meet the Sultan. Ibn Khaldun mentions that the Sultan honored him and sent him with his chamberlain Ibn Abi Amr to Bougie to witness its submission to Sultan Abu Enan.[7]
Ibn Khaldun would stay in the company of the Chamberlain while the Sultan moved back to the capital, Fez. In 1354 (755 A.H.) Ibn Khaldun would accept the invitation to join the council of Ulama and would move to Fez. He would eventually be promoted to the post of the seal bearer and would accept it reluctantly, because it was inferior to the posts once occupied by his ancestors.[8]
Ibn Khaldun would use his stay in Fez to further his studies. Fez at this time was a capital of Morocco and enjoyed the company of many scholars from all over North Africa and Andalusia. He was also being promoted from one position to another.[9]
Ibn Khaldun was an ambitious young man and at this point of his life, he would begin to engage in court politics. Ibn Khaldun would conspire with Abu Abdullah Muhammad, the dethroned ruler of Bougie who was captive in Fez at that time. Abu Abdullah is from the Banu Hafs which were patrons of Ibn Khaldun’s Family.[10]
Sultan Abu Enan would find out about the conspiracy and would imprison Ibn Khaldun. Abu Abdullah would be released from prison and Ibn Khaldun would linger on for two years. Sultan Abu Enan would fall ill and die before fulfilling his promise to release Ibn Khaldun. The Wazir Al-Hassan ibn Omar ordered the release of Ibn Khaldun who was restored to his former position.[11]

ESCAPE FROM MOROCCO TO SPAIN
The political climate was tense and Ibn Khaldun would again test his fate and conspire against the Wazir with al-Mansur.[12] This loyalty would be short lived too. He would conspire with Sultan Abu Salem who would overthrow Al-Mansur. Ibn Khaldun would get the position of Secretary and the repository of his confidence (Amin as-Sir).[13]
Here Ibn Khaldun would excel in his position and would compose many poems. He would occupy this position for two more years and would then be appointed as the Chief Justice. He would show a great ability in this position. However due to constant rivalry between him and high officials he would lose favor with the Sultan.[14]
However this would not matter because a revolt would take place and Sultan Abu Salem would be overthrown by Wazir Omar. Ibn Khaldun would side with the victorious and would get his post with higher pay. Ibn Khaldun was ambitious as ever and wanted a higher position, namely that of the Chamberlain. For reasons unknown, perhaps he was not trusted, he was refused. This upset him enough to resign his position. This in turn upset the Wazir. Ibn Khaldun would ask to leave Fez and go back to Tunisia and this request would be refused. It was then that he would ask the Wazir’s son-in-law to intercede on his behalf to be allowed to go to Andalusia.[15]

FROM SPAIN TO TUNISIA
Sultan Muahmmad al-Ahmar, the king of Granada, was deposed by his brother Ismail who was supported by his brother-in-law. Sultan Muhammad was a friend of Sultan Abu Salem who helped him when he was deported to Andalusia by Sultan Abu Enan. When Sultan Abu Enan died and Sultan Abu Salem became the ruler that friendship was rekindled. Further when Ismail al-Ahmar was declared king of Granada in a place revolt, Sultan Muhammad took refuge in Morocco with Sultan Abu Salem. They were welcomed with great fanfare, Ibn Khaldun was present at the festivities. Among Sultan Muhammad’s party was his wise Wazir Ibn al-Khatib who developed a close friendship with Ibn Khaldun.[16]
Sultan Muhammad would attempt to restore his throne in Granada through an agreement with Pedro the cruel, the King of Castile. Pedro would delay the execution of the agreement upon hearing of Sultan Abu Salem death. Sultan Muhammad would appeal to Ibn Khaldun to get the assistance from Wazir Omar. Ibn Khaldun would use his influence to help him. Further Ibn Khaldun was entrusted to care for Sultan Muhammad’s family in Fez. The Wazir would grant Sultan Muhammad Ronda and the surrounding country. Sultan Muhammad would continue his efforts and recapture his throne in 1361 (763 A. H.). He would recall his Wazir Ibn al-Khatib.[17]
When the relationship between Ibn Khaldun would turn sour and uncertain he would turn towards Andalusia. He would be welcomed and honored well by Sultan Muhammad who admitted him to his private council. In the following year Sultan Muhammad would send Ibn Khaldun on an Ambassadorial mission to Pedro, the King of Castile. Ibn Khaldun would conclude and peaceful terms between them. Pedro would offer Ibn Khaldun a position in his service and to return to him his family’s former estate at Castile. Ibn Khaldun would decline the offer.[18]
Upon his return from Castile, Ibn Khaldun would offer Pedro’s gift to him to the Sultan and in return, the Sultan would give him the Village of Elvira. Soon Ibn Khaldun would be restless once more and in the following year, he would receive an invitation from his friend Abu Abdullah, who had recaptured his throne at Bougie. Ibn Khaldun left Granada in 1364 (766 A.H.) for Bougie after asking permission to leave from Sultan Muhammad.[19]

From Rosenthal's Translation

ADVENTURES IN NORTH AFRICA
Ibn Khaldun would arrive in Bougie at the Age of 32 years. His plans have finally been realized. The period of imprisonment in Fez did not go to waste. He would enter the city as favorite guest. He would accept the position of Hajib for Emir Muhammad. This life of power would not last long as in the following year Abul Abbas would kill the Emir Muhammad, his cousin. Ibn Khaldun handed the city to him and retired to the city of Biskra. He would continue his political work in relaying the tribes to the service of this Emir or that Sultan. He would continue his practice of shifting loyalties as the times and opportunities afforded him. He would finally retire to a far outpost south of Constantine, fort Salama.[20]
In Fort Salama he would enjoy this peaceful existence and would begin to write down his famous Muqqddimah and first version of his universal history at the age of forty-five years.[21]
He would dedicate his work to the current Emir of Constantine, Sultan Abul Abbas. Tranquility did not last long with Ibn Khaldun, as he needed more reference works which were not available at this far outpost. He used the occasion of the Abul Abbas’s conquest of Tunisia to go to Tunis. This would be the first time he would return to the town of his birth since leaving it over 27 years ago.[22]
There would be political forces at work against him once more and this time before he would fall out of favor he would use a convenient occasion 1382 to leave North Africa behind never to return.[23]

TO EGYPT
Ibn Khaldun was granted permission from Sultan Abul Abbas to go to Hajj. He arrived in Alexandria in October 1382 ( 15th Shabaan 784 A. H.) at the ripe age of 50. He spent a month preparing to leave for Hajj but was unable to join the Caravan bound for the Holy Lands. He turned towards Cairo instead. Here he wold live his final days. He was warmly welcomed by scholars and students. His fame for his writings had already preceded him. He lectured at Al-Azhar and other fine schools. He would get the chance to meet with Sultan az-Zahir Barquq who would appoint him to teach at the Kamhiah school.[24]
He would enjoy the favors of the Sultan. He would be appointed as a Maliki Judge on the Sultans whim and anger. He would fare well and tried to fight corruption and favoritism. Again conspiracies against him would work its way and he would be relieved of this duty. His relief of duty would coincide with his family’s disaster. The ship carrying his family and belongings would sink in a storm.[25]
It was then that he would take permission to go to the Pilgrimage to the Holy Lands. He would return and be well received and appointed to a teaching position in the newly built school(Bein al-Qasrein) He would lecture in Hadith, particularly Imam Malik’s Muwatta. He would then be appointed to Beibers Sufi institute with a generous salary. The state of affairs of Egypt would be disturbed as a rival of Sultan Barquq, Yulbugha would organize a successful revolt. Sultan Barquq would stage another revolt and would be restored to his former throne. Ibn Khaldun during this period would suffer and would have his position restored to him with the return of the victorious Sultan Barquq to Power.[26]
Ibn Khaldun during this period would devote his time to lecturing and study as wellas to completing his Universal History. After Yulbugha’s revolt, he would write about Asabiyah and its role in the rise and fall of states. He would apply his theory to the Egyptian theater since the time of Salah ad-Din.[27]
After fourteen years since leaving the position of the Chief Maliki judge Ibn Khaldun would reassigned to the post upon the death of the presiding Judge. The state would again fall into disarray upon the death of Sultan Barquq’s and his son’s ascension. Ibn Khaldun would not be a party to these revolts and would ask permission to visit Jerusalem. He would join the Sultan Faraj’s caravan on its way back from Damascus. Again due to political intrigue he would be relived of his duties as judge for the second time. This would not matter because he would be called to accompany the Sultan on perilous Journey with fate to Damascus.[28]
From Rosenthal's Translation
MEETING TAMERLANE
During Ibn Khaldun’s stay in Egypt he would be asked by Sultan Faraj of Egypt to accompany him on his expedition to Damascus. News reports have confirmed the movement of Tamerlane’s war party towards Damascus. Sultan Faraj with his army were on their way to Damascus. It seems that Ibn Khaldun was asked firmly to accompany the Sultan to Damascus.[29]
The Sultan would only stay for two weeks in Damascus, as he had to leave due to rumors that a revolt back in Cairo was in the works. Ibn Khaldun and some notables were left behind in Damascus. It was now up to the leaders of Damascus to deal with Tamerlane. Ibn Khaldun had suggested to them to consider the terms of Tamerlane. It was the task of another Qadi, Ibn Muflih, to discuss the terms with Tamerlane. When Ibn Muflih returned from Tamerlane’s camp, the terms were not agreeable to the residents of Damascus.[30]
Since it was the suggestion of Ibn Khaldun to come to terms with Tamerlane, Ibn Khaldun felt obliged to meet with Tamerlane personally. Ibn Khaldun would leave Damascus and go to the camp of Tamerlane. It is questionable whether he went on his own or in an official capacity. Ibn Khaldun took some gifts with him for Tamerlane and they were well received. Ibn Khaldun would stay in Tamerlane’s camp for thirty-five days.[31]
Over this period, Ibn Khaldun would have many meetings with Tamerlane and they would converse through an interpreter, Abd al-Jabbar al-Khwarizmi (d. 1403). Ibn Khaldun’s account is the only detailed account available. The subjects that they would discuss were varied and some were unrecorded. W. Fischel lists 6 specific topics which they talked about:




    1. On Maghrib and Ibn Khaldun’s Land of origin.




    2. On heroes in History.




    3. On predictions of things to come.




    4. On the Abbsid Caliphate




    5. On amnesty and security "For Ibn Khaldun and his Companion."




    6. On Ibn Khaldun’s intention to stay with Tamerlane.[32]
Ibn Khaldun impressed the conqueror enough to ask him to join his court. Some biographers have suggested that he did and written down his eloquent appeal to return to Egypt to settle his affairs, get his books and family and join Tamerlane. It however is more likely that Ibn Khaldun left on good terms with Tamerlane and have accomplished his mission of extracting favorable terms for the people of Damascus.[33]
Ibn Khaldun’s departing words lend credence to the fact that he would not be returning to his service:
"Is there any generosity left beyond that which you have already shown me? You have heaped favors upon me, accorded me a place in your council among your intimate followers, and shown me kindness and generosity- which I hope Allah will repay to you in like measures."[34]
FINAL DAYS IN EGYPT :
Upon Ibn Khaldun’s return to Egypt, he was restored as the Malikite Qadi. Due to the political situation within the community of Malikite Qadis Ibn Khaldun would be dismissed and reinstated three times during the five-year period. Finally, he died while he was in office on Wednesday March 17th 1406 (25th of Ramadan 808). He was buried in the Sufi Cemetery outsideBab an-Nasr, Cairo at the age of seventy-four years.[35]
From Rosenthal's translation
THE MAGNUM OPUS "AL-MUQADDIMAH"
He would his write his Introduction to his book of universal history in a span of five months.[36] This impressive document is a gist of his wisdom and hard earned experience. He would use his political and first had knowledge of the people of Maghrib to formulate many of his ideas. This document would summarize Ibn Khaldun’s ideas about every field of knowledge during his day. He would discuss a variety of topics. He would discuss History and Historiography. He would rebuke some of the historical claims with a calculated logic. He would discuss the current sciences of his days. He would talk about astronomy, astrology, and numerology. He would discuss Chemistry, alchemy and Magic in a scientific way. He would freely offer his opinions and document well the "facts" of the other point of view. His discussion of Tribal societies and social forces would be the most interesting part of his thesis. He would illuminate the world with deep insight into the workings and makings of kingdoms and civilizations. His thesis that the conquered race will always emulate the conqueror in every way.[37] His theory about Asbyiah(group feeling) and the role that it plays in Bedouin societies is insightful. His theories of the science of Umran (sociology) are all pearls of wisdom. His Introduction is his greatest legacy that he left for all of humanity and the generations to come.

Works

When civilization [population] increases, the available labor again increases. In turn, luxury again increases in correspondence with the increasing profit, and the customs and needs of luxury increase. Crafts are created to obtain luxury products. The value realized from them increases, and, as a result, profits are again multiplied in the town. Production there is thriving even more than before. And so it goes with the second and third increase. All the additional labor serves luxury and wealth, in contrast to the original labor that served the necessity of life.[26]
Ibn Khaldun on economic growth
Businesses owned by responsible and organized merchants shall eventually surpass those owned by wealthy rulers.[27]
Ibn Khaldun on economic growth and the ideals of Plato


 



 Ibn Khaldūn has left behind few works other than his history of the world, al-Kitābu l-ʕibār. Significantly, such writings are not alluded to in his autobiography, suggesting perhaps that Ibn Khaldūn saw himself first and foremost as a historian and wanted to be known above all as the author of al-Kitābu l-ʕibār. From other sources we know of several other works, primarily composed during the time he spent in North Africa and Al-Andalus. His first book, Lubābu l-Muhassal, a commentary on the Islamic theology of Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, was written at the age of 19 under the supervision of his teacher al-Ābilī in Tunis. A work on Sufism, Sifā'u l-Sā'il, was composed around 1373 in Fes, Morocco. Whilst at the court of Muhammed V, Sultan of Granada, Ibn Khaldūn composed a work on logic, ʕallaqa li-l-Sultān.
The Kitābu l-ʕibār (full title: Kitābu l-ʕibār wa Diwānu l-Mubtada' wa l-Ħabar fī Ayyāmu l-ʕarab wa l-Ājam wa l-Barbar wa man ʕĀsarahum min ĐawIu s-Sultānu l-Akbār "Book of Evidence, Record of Beginnings and Events from the Days of the Arabs, Persians and Berbers and their Powerful Contemporaries"), Ibn Khaldūn's main work, was originally conceived as a history of the Berbers. Later, the focus was widened so that in its final form (including its own methodology and anthropology), to represent a so-called "universal history". It is divided into seven books, the first of which, the Muqaddimah, can be considered a separate work. Books two to five cover the history of mankind up to the time of Ibn Khaldūn. Books six and seven cover the history of the Berber peoples and the Maghreb, which remain invaluable to present-day historians, as they are based on Ibn Khaldūn's personal knowledge of the Berbers.[28]
Concerning the discipline of sociology, he conceived a theory of social conflict. He developed the dichotomy of sedentary life versus nomadic life as well as the concept of a "generation," and the inevitable loss of power that occurs when desert warriors conquer a city. Following a contemporary Arab scholar, Sati' al-Husri, the Muqaddimah may be read as a sociological work: six books of general sociology. Topics dealt with in this work include politics, urban life, economics, and knowledge. The work is based around Ibn Khaldun's central concept of 'asabiyyah, which has been translated as "social cohesion", "group solidarity", or "tribalism." This social cohesion arises spontaneously in tribes and other small kinship groups; it can be intensified and enlarged by a religious ideology. Ibn Khaldun's analysis looks at how this cohesion carries groups to power but contains within itself the seeds - psychological, sociological, economic, political - of the group's downfall, to be replaced by a new group, dynasty or empire bound by a stronger (or at least younger and more vigorous) cohesion. Ibn Khaldun has been cited as a racist, but his theories on the rise and fall of empires had no racial component, and this reading of his work has been claimed to be the result of mistranslations.[29]
Perhaps the most frequently cited observation drawn from Ibn Khaldūn's work is the notion that when a society becomes a great civilization (and, presumably, the dominant culture in its region), its high point is followed by a period of decay. This means that the next cohesive group that conquers the diminished civilization is, by comparison, a group of barbarians. Once the barbarians solidify their control over the conquered society, however, they become attracted to its more refined aspects, such as literacy and arts, and either assimilate into or appropriate such cultural practices. Then, eventually, the former barbarians will be conquered by a new set of barbarians, who will repeat the process. Some contemporary readers of Khaldun have read this as an early business cycle theory, though set in the historical circumstances of the mature Islamic empire.
Some readings posit an anticipation of Marx's labour theory of value in Ibn Khaldun's work. Ibn Khaldun asserts that all value (profit) comes from labour, as Marx was later to write. He outlines an early (possibly even the earliest) example of political economy. He describes the economy as being composed of value-adding processes; that is, labour is added to techniques and crafts and the product is sold at a higher value. He also made the distinction between "profit" and "sustenance", in modern political economy terms, surplus and that required for the reproduction of classes respectively. He also calls for the creation of a science to explain society and goes on to outline these ideas in his major work the Muqaddimah.

 

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